It has been noted in the chapter on Selling that the selling process begins with budgeting (which may in turn start at title acquisition stage). Only if you have estimated the impact of export on your revenue will you be able to assess what level of cost can reasonably be incurred. As with all business planning, the investment required will need to precede the anticipated income, but it is important to estimate the benefits that will ensue. The Selling chapter contains some material on how to approach this budgeting process. Appendix E, Case study: an export start-up, shows what may be possible in terms of business transformation, but that example lies at the most positive end of the spectrum: each business will need to make its own realistic assessment, and include this in its overall company budgeting process. If the company has a developing backlist, this element too should be included in the process, using as a rule of thumb the proportion backlist represents of total existing turnover, provided that the backlist profile resembles that of the new publication schedule.

As previously indicated, export budgeting should allow for the higher discounts granted to overseas customers, as well as for returns. Export returns rates have traditionally been considerably lower than those in the home market, though the latter have been somewhat reduced by firm-sale terms arrangements with key accounts.